Miliary tuberculosis is caused due to widespread haematogenous dissemination of tubercle bacilli.
Military tuberculosis is of three types, which are as follow-
1. Classical or acute miliary tuberculosis.
2. Cryptic miliary tuberculosis.
3. Non-reactive miliary tuberculosis.
1. Classical or acute miliary tuberculosis-
Classical or acute miliary tuberculosis affects children and young adults more. Insidious onset of symptoms is there. Fever and weight loss for weeks is there. High grade fever with drenching night sweats with the progress of disease. Cough with difficulty in breathing. Hepatosplenomegaly may be there in some cases. Chest X-ray shows miliary mottling
2. Cryptic miliary tuberculosis-
Cryptic miliary tuberculosis usually affects adults. There is weight loss with weakness, general fatigue and debility. Persistent low grade fever is there. Anemia with or without hepatosplenomegaly is there. Tuberculin test is negative and chest X-ray shows
3. Non-reactive miliary tuberculosis-
Non-reactive miliary tuberculosis is an acute malignant form of tuberculous septicaemia which causes necrotic lesions in various organs containing massive number of bacilli. Health is deteriorating and the patient is in ill health. Anemia is also there. Chest X-ray may or may not show miliary mottling. Tuberculin test is negative.
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Reference taken from- Book- Textbook of Practice of Medicine by Methew and Parveen Aggarwal.