Tobacco use most commonly leads to diseases affecting the heart and lungs, with smoking being a major risk for heart attack. The primary risk of tobacco usuage include many form of cancer, particularly lung cancer, cancer of kidney, cancer of laryanx and head and neck, breast, bladder, oesopahgus, pancreas and stomach. In smoking, long term exposure to compounds found in the smoke such as carbon monoxide, cyanide and so forth, are believed to be responsible for pulmonary damage and for loss of elasticity in the alveoli, leading emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Inhalation of tobacco smoke casues several immediate responses with in the heart and blood vessels. With in one minute the heart rate begins to rise. Smoking also increases the chance of heart disease, stroke, atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular disease. Several ingredients of tobacco lead to the narrowing of the blood vessels, increasing the likelihood of blockage and thus heart attack or stroke.
The usage of tobacco has also been linked to burger's disease. Even short exposure to second hand smoke can cause blood platelets to become sticker, damage the lining of the blood vessels, decrease coronary flow velocity reserves and reduce heart rate variability, potentially increasing the risk of heart attack. Smoking also raises the levels of fibrinogen and increases platelet production which makes the blood viscous. Smoking tends to increase blood cholesterol levels. Cigar smoking causes a variety of cancers including cancers of the oral cavity, oesophagus, laryanx and lungs. Smoking also iincreases the risk for various other oral diseases. Halitosis or bad breath is common among tabcco smokers.
Tobacco usuage is a significant factor in miscarriage among pregnant smokers, it contributes to number of other threats to the health of the foetus such as premature births and low birth weight. The coginitve dysfunction include increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and decline in cogniitve abilities in adloscent smokers, cerebral atrophy.
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